Basic Computer Knowledge – No one should mind today believing that the computer is the focal point of modern human life. The reason is the same for him. We can’t even imagine the world today without a computer, so much so that it has become an integral part of our daily lives.
So today we are going to learn basic and detailed information about this computer. What is a computer? (Basic Computer Knowledge) Even a to z information about the computer. Let’s start without further ado!
What is a computer?
Basic Computer Knowledge –
A computer is an electronic device that handles information or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve and process data.
You may already know that you can use a computer to digitally type documents, send emails, play games, and browse the web.
You can also use it to make spreadsheets, presentations and create videos or send them to other people. This is the basic information that everyone knows. Now on.
Hardware and software
Basic Computer Knowledge- Before we learn about the different types of computers, let us first talk about these two things that all computers have, namely hardware and software.
Hardware – Hardware is the part of a computer that we see as a physical structure. Which have physical structures like a keyboard or mouse. It covers all the internal parts of a computer.
Software – Software is a set of indicators that give the hardware instructions on what to do and how to do it. Examples of software include web browsers, games, and word processors.
Everything you do on a computer depends on both hardware and software. For example, if you are using a computer or laptop, now you are browsing this browser (software) and reading this article on the computer, and using your mouse (hardware) to click from one page to another.
As you learn more about different types of computers later in this article, ask yourself questions about differences in hardware. As you read further in this article, you will find that different types of computers often use different types of software. So read carefully.
What are the different types of computers?
Basic Computer Knowledge- When most people hear the word computer, they think of a personal computer, such as a desktop or laptop. However, computers come in many forms and sizes, and they work in many different ways in our daily lives.
When you withdraw money from an ATM, scan a grocery store in a store, or use a calculator, you are using a kind of computer.
We all use desktop computers in the office, at home, or at school. Desktops are designed to hold computer desks and are usually made up of a combination of the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse.
Laptops are just another type of computer. This is commonly called a laptop. Laptops are battery-powered computers that are more portable than desktops, which you can use almost anywhere. Car, bus, train, even in your toilet.
Tablet computers or tablets are handheld computers that are more portable than laptops. Tablets use touch-sensitive screens for typing and navigation instead of keyboards and mice. The iPad is a great example of a tablet.
Basic Computer Knowledge- Generally speaking, a server is a large computer that provides information to other computers on the network. For example, every time you use the Internet, you see information stored on a server on a computer. Many online businesses and their files are on local file servers. Here they can store and share their information.
Some other types of computers:
Basic Computer Knowledge- Many electronics items these days are basically a kind of special computer, but we always ignore them when we look at them. Here are some common examples.
1. Smartphones : Usually, a computer that works, nowadays almost all of that work is also done by a smartphone. A few years ago we used to do internet browsing and playing games on the computer, but today we do it easily on mobile or cell phone. This is what we call smartphones today.
2. Wearables : Fitness trackers use these smartwatch devices. Wearable technology is a general term that is designed to be worn all day long. These devices are commonly called wearables.
3. Game consoles : A game console is a special type of computer used to play video games on your TV.
4. TVs : Most TVs now have applications or apps that provide you with a wide variety of online content. And you can broadcast videos directly from the Internet to your TV.
PCs and Macs
Personal computers come in two main styles: PC and Mac. Both are fully functional, but their look and feel are different. And many people prefer one or both of these.
This type of computer originated from the original IBM PC, launched in 1981. Other companies have begun to develop computers called IBM PC Compact (often shortened to PC). Today, it is the most common type of personal computer and includes the Microsoft Windows operating system.
The Macintosh computer was introduced in 1984. And the graphical user interface or GUI (pronounced gooey) was the first personal computer to be sold. All Macs are made by a company (Apple) and they almost always use the Mac OS X operating system.
Basic Parts of a Computer
The basic components of a desktop computer are a computer case, a monitor, a keyboard, a mouse, and a power cord. Every part plays an important role when you use a computer.
Basic Computer Knowledge- A computer case is a metal and plastic box that contains the main components of a computer, including the motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), and power supply. The front of the case usually has an On / Off button and one or more optical drives.
Computer cases come in different shapes and sizes. The desktop case is flat on the desk and the monitor usually sits on it. The tower case is at the top and is placed next to or below the monitor. All-in-one computer monitors come with built-in internal components, which do not require a separate case.
The monitor shows you images and text on the screen. He does this through the video card in his computer case. Most monitors have control buttons that allow you to change your monitor’s display settings, and some monitors have built-in speakers.
Newer monitors usually have LCD (liquid crystal display) or LED (light-emitting diode) displays. These are made very thin and are often called flat-panel displays. Older monitors use CRT (cathode ray tube) displays. CRT monitors are much larger and heavier and take up more space for desks.
The keyboard is the main way to communicate with a computer. There are many types of keyboards, and most of them are the same and work the same for you.
The mouse is another important tool for communicating with a computer. Commonly known as a pointing device, we can zoom in on objects on the screen with the help of a mouse, click on them and move them.
There are two types of mouse: optical and mechanical. The optical mouse uses the electronic eye to detect movement. The mechanical mouse uses a rolling ball to detect movement.
Some mouse options:
Basic Computer Knowledge- There are other devices that can act just like a mouse. Most people find it easy to use and useless desk space than a traditional mouse. Below are the most common mouse options.
Trackball : A trackball consists of a ball that can spin freely. Instead of moving the device like a mouse, you can roll the ball with your thumb to move the pointer.
Touchpad : Also called trackpad. The trackpad is a touch-sensitive pad that lets you control the pointer by making drawing speed with your finger. Touchpads are common on laptop computers.
Buttons and Ports on a Computer
Basic Computer Knowledge- Take a look at the front and back of your computer and count the number of buttons, ports, and slots you see. Now look at your monitor and you will find some buttons there too. You may have counted at least 10 or more.
Every computer is different, and so the buttons, ports, and sockets of a computer cannot tell if another computer can be turned on. However, this article will help you learn how to use these ports when you need to connect something to your computers like a new printer, keyboard, or mouse.
The front of the computer:
Back of a computer case:
The back of the computer has connection ports designed to fit specific devices. Placement can vary from computer to computer, and many companies have their own special connectors for specific devices. Some ports may be color-coded to help determine which port to use with a particular device.
Other types of ports:
Basic Computer Knowledge- There are many other ports like FireWire, Thunderbolt, and HDMI. If you do not know much about computers and have such a port, you should consult your manual for more information.
Peripherals you can use with your computer:
Basic Computer Knowledge- The most basic computer setup usually consists of a computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse, but you can plug a wide variety of devices into an additional port on your computer. These devices are called peripherals. Let’s take a look at some of the most common ones.
Printers : The printer is used to print documents, photos, and anything else that appears on your screen. There are many types of printers, including inkjet, laser, and photo printers. There are all-in-one printers, which can also scan and copy documents.
Scanners : The scanner is used to copy a physical image or document and save it to your computer in digital format (computer-readable). You can also purchase a separate flatbed or handheld scanner, although many scanners are included as part of an all-in-one printer.
Speakers/headphones: Speakers and headphones are output devices, meaning they send information from a computer to a user – in which case they help you listen to audio and music. Depending on the model, they can be connected to an audio port or a USB port. Some monitors also have built-in speakers.
Microphones : A microphone is a type of input device that receives information from a user. You can connect a microphone to record sound or talk to someone on the Internet. Most laptop computers come with a built-in microphone.
Web cameras: Or a webcam input is a type of input device that can record video and take pictures. It can also broadcast video on the internet in real-time, video chat or video conferencing is a very useful device. Most webcams include a microphone for this purpose.
Game controllers and joysticks : A game controller is used to control the game on the computer. You can use many other types of controllers, including joysticks, although you can also use your mouse and keyboard to control most games.
Digital cameras: The digital camera lets you capture pictures and videos in digital format. By connecting the camera to your computer’s USB port, you can transfer images from the camera to the computer.
Mobile phones, MP3 players, tablet computers, and other devices : Whenever you buy an electronic device, such as a mobile phone or MP3 player, check that it is accompanied by a USB cable. If that happens, it means you can most likely connect it to your computer.
Inside a Computer
Basic Computer Knowledge- Have you ever opened a computer case and looked inside, or were you confused by the inside view? Small parts may seem complicated but the case inside the computer isn’t really that mysterious. This lesson will help you to master some basic vocabulary and understand a little bit about what is going on inside the computer.
The motherboard is the main circuit board of the computer. It is a thin plate with connectors for CPU, memory, hard drives, and optical drives, expansion cards for controlling video and audio, and connections to your computer’s port (such as a USB port). The motherboard connects directly or indirectly to every part of the computer.
Basic Computer Knowledge- The central processing unit (CPU), also called the processor, is located in the computer case on the motherboard. This is sometimes called the brain of the computer, and its function is to carry out commands. When you press a key, click a mouse, or start an application, you are prompting commands to the CPU.
A CPU is usually a two-inch ceramic square with a silicon chip inside. The chip is usually about the size of your thumb. The CPU is in the CPU socket of the motherboard, which is occupied by the heat sink.
Processor speed is measured in megahertz (MHz) and millions of instructions are measured per second And billions of instructions per second in gigahertz (GHz). The faster processor can execute notifications more quickly. However, the actual speed of a computer depends not only on the processor but also on the speed of many components.
RAM (random access memory):
Basic Computer Knowledge- RAM (random access memory) is the short-term memory of your system. Whenever your computer performs calculations, it temporarily stores the data in RAM.
This short-term memory disappears when the computer is turned off. If you are working on a document, spreadsheet, or other types of file, you need to save it so that it is not lost. When you save a file, the data is written to the hard drive, which serves as long-term storage.
RAM is measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). The more RAM you have, the more your computer can work at the same time. If you do not have enough RAM, you will notice that your computer is lazy when you have too many programs open. As a result, many people add extra RAM to their computers to improve performance.
Basic Computer Knowledge- The hard drive is where your software, documents, and other files are stored. The hard drive is long-term storage, which means data is saved even when you turn off or unplug the computer.
When you run a program or open a file, the computer copies some data from the hard drive to RAM. When you save a file, the data is copied back to the hard drive. The faster your hard drive, the faster your computer can start and load programs.
Power supply unit:
Basic Computer Knowledge- The power supply in the computer converts the power required by the computer from the outlet of the unit. It sends power to the motherboard and other components via cable.
warning: If you decide to open the computer case, make sure to unplug the computer first. Before touching the inside of the computer, you should touch a ground metal object or the metal part of the cover of the computer to form a stable column. Static electricity can be transmitted through a computer circuit, which can cause serious damage to your machine.
Basic Computer Knowledge- Most computers have expansion slots on the motherboard that allow you to add a variety of expansion cards. These are sometimes called PCI (peripheral component interconnect) cards. You may not need to add a PCI card these days as most motherboards have built-in video, sound, network, and other capabilities.
However, if you want to increase the performance of your computer or update the capacity of the old computer, you can always add one or more cards. Below are some common types of expansion cards.
Basic Computer Knowledge- The video card is responsible for everything you see on the monitor. Most computers have a GPU (graphics processing unit) built into the motherboard without a separate video card. If you like playing graphics-intensive games, you can add fast video cards to expansion slots for better performance.
A sound card – also called an audio card – about what you hear in speakers or headphones. Most motherboards have integrated sound, but you can upgrade to a dedicated sound card for higher-quality sound.
Basic Computer Knowledge- The network card allows your computer to communicate over the network and access the Internet. It can be connected either with an Ethernet cable or via a wireless connection (often called Wi-Fi). Most motherboards have built-in network connections, and network cards can be added to expansion slots.
Bluetooth card (or adapter):
Basic Computer Knowledge- Bluetooth is a technology for short-distance wireless communication. It is often used in computers to communicate with wireless keyboards, mice, and printers. It is usually built into the motherboard or inserted into a wireless network card. For computers without Bluetooth, you can buy a USB adapter, called a dongle.
Basic Computer Knowledge- A laptop is a personal computer that can be easily picked up and used in a variety of places. Most laptops are designed to build all the functionality of a desktop computer, which means they can usually run the same software and open the same type of files. However, laptops are more expensive than comparable desktop computers.
How is a laptop different from a desktop?
Since laptops are designed for portability, there are some significant differences between them and desktop computers. The laptop has a built-in monitor, keyboard, touchpad (which replaces the mouse), and speakers.
This means that laptops are fully functional. Setting up a laptop is very easy, and there is less need for cables.
You also have the option to add a mouse, large monitor, and other peripherals. It basically transforms your main laptop into a desktop computer, the main difference being that you can easily disconnect the peripheral and take the laptop with you wherever you go.
Here are the main differences between laptops and desktops.
1. Touchpad: A touchpad / also called a trackpad is a touch-sensitive pad that controls the pointer by making drawing speed with your finger.
2. Battery: Every laptop has a battery, which helps you to use when the laptop is not plugged in. The battery recharges when you plug in the laptop. Another advantage of having a battery is that it gives backup power to the laptop when it runs out of power.
3. AC adapter: A laptop usually has a special power cable called an AC adapter, which is designed to be used with that particular type of laptop.
4. Ports: While most laptops have similar ports on desktop computers (such as USB), laptops usually have fewer ports to save space. Some ports may be different and you may need an adapter to use them.
5. Price: Generally speaking, laptops are a little more expensive than desktop computers with the same internal components. You may find that some basic laptops cost less than desktop computers, but then these are usually much less powerful machines.
What is a mobile device?
A mobile device is a general term for any type of handheld computer. These devices are designed to be extremely portable and can easily fit in your hand. Some mobile devices like tablets, e-readers, and smartphones are powerful enough to do just about anything you can do on a desktop or laptop computer.
Basic Computer Knowledge- Like laptops, tablets are designed as a kind of portable computers. However, they provide a different computer experience. The most obvious difference is that the tablet does not have a keyboard or touchpad. Instead, the entire screen is touch-sensitive, allowing you to type on a virtual keyboard and use your finger as a mouse pointer.
A tablet cannot do everything that a traditional computer can do. Most people need a traditional computer like a desktop or laptop for work. However, the convenience of a tablet computer means that it can be ideal as a second computer.
Basic Computer Knowledge- E-book readers, also called e-readers, are similar to tablets, except that they are primarily designed for reading e-books (digital, downloadable books). Notable examples include Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, and Kobo. Many e-readers use e-ink displays, which are easier to read than traditional computer displays. We can read in the intense sunlight just like we read a regular book.
You do not need an e-reader to read the e-book. They can also be read on tablets, smartphones, laptops, and desktops.
Basic Computer Knowledge- The smartphone is a more powerful version of the traditional cell phone. In addition to the same basic features – phone calls, voicemail, text messaging Wi smartphone can connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi or cellular network (which requires the purchase of a monthly data plan).
This means you can use your smartphone for the same things you normally do on a computer, such as checking your email, browsing the web, or shopping online.
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Most smartphones use touch-sensitive screens, meaning there is no physical keyboard on the device. Instead, you’ll type on a virtual keyboard and use your fingers to communicate. Other standard features include a high-quality digital camera and the ability to play digital music and video files. For most people, smartphones can replace electronics like old laptops, digital music players, and digital cameras with real devices.
Understanding Operating Systems-
What is an operating system?
Basic Computer Knowledge- The operating system is the most important software running on a computer. It manages the computer’s memory and processes as well as all its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with a computer without having to learn how to speak computer language. A computer is useless without an operating system.
The operating system’s job:
Basic Computer Knowledge- Your computer’s operating system (OS) manages all software and hardware on the computer. Most of the time, many different computer programs are running at the same time and all of them require access to your computer’s central processing unit (CPU), memory, and storage. The operating system coordinates all of this to ensure that each program gets what it needs.
Types of operating systems:
Basic Computer Knowledge- Operating systems are usually pre-loaded on any computer you purchase. Many people use the operating system that comes with their computer, but it is also possible to upgrade or change the operating system. Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. These are the three most common operating systems for personal computers.
Modern operating systems use a graphical user interface or GUI (gooey). The GUI lets you use your mouse to click icons, buttons, and menus, and everything is clearly displayed on the screen using a combination of graphics and text.
Each operating system’s GUI has a different look and feel, so if you switch to a different operating system it may seem unfamiliar at first. Nevertheless, modern operating systems are designed to be easy to use and most of the basic principles are the same.
Basic Computer Knowledge- Microsoft created the Windows operating system in the mid-1980s. There are many different versions of Windows, but the most recent are Windows 10 (released in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), and Windows Vista (2007). Windows is pre-loaded on many new PCs, the most popular operating system in the world.
macOS: macOS (formerly known as OS X) is a chain of operating systems created by Apple. These are all preloaded on Macintosh computers or on Mac. These include specific Mojave (released in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016) editions.
According to StatCounter Global, less than 10% of macOS users have a global operating system, much less than the percentage of Windows users (80%). One reason for this is that Apple’s computers are more expensive. Still, many people prefer to use the look and feel of macOS on Windows.
Linux: (Pronounced LINN-UX) is a family of open-source operating systems, meaning they can be modified and distributed to anyone around the world. This is different from proprietary software like Windows, which only a company owned by him can modify. The advantage of Linux is that it is free. And there are many different distributions or versions to choose from.
According to StatCounter Global, Linux users make up less than 2% of the global operating system. However, many servers use Linux because they are easier to customize.
Operating system for mobile devices
Basic Computer Knowledge- The operating system we are talking about so far was designed to run on desktop and laptop computers. Mobile devices like phones, tablet computers, and MP3 players are different from desktop and laptop computers.
So they run specific operating systems specifically designed for mobile devices. Examples of mobile operating systems include Apple iOS and Google Android.
Operating systems for mobile devices usually do not have the same features like desktop and laptop computers and are not all capable of running the same software. However, you can still do many things on your mobile device, such as watching movies, browsing the web, and playing games.
What are applications?
Basic Computer Knowledge- You may have heard of using a program, application or app. But what does this mean? Simply put, an app is a type of software that allows you to perform specific tasks. Applications for desktop or laptop computers are called desktop applications, while mobile applications for mobile devices.
When you open an application, it runs until the operating system shuts down. Most of the time, if you have more than one application open at the same time, it is known as multi-tasking.
The App is a general term for an application, especially since most apps can be downloaded cheaply or even for free. Many apps are also available for mobile devices and TVs.
Basic Computer Knowledge- There are numerous desktop apps and they fall into many categories. Some are more specialized (like Microsoft Word), while others can only do one or two things (like a clock or calendar app). Below are some of the types of apps you can use.
1. Word processors: The word processor helps you write letters, plan flyers, and create many other types of documents. Microsoft Word is the most reputable word processor.
2. Web browsers: A web browser is a tool that you use to access the Internet. Most computers come with a pre-installed web browser, but you can also download a different browser. Examples of browsers include Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Safari.
3. Media players: You need to use MP3 or Media Player to listen to the song or watch the downloaded movie. media player and iTunes are popular media players.
4. Games: There are many types of games available online that you can play on your computer. From card games like Solitaire to action games like Halo. Most action games require a lot of computer energy, some games will not be able to run unless you have a new computer.
Basic Computer Knowledge- Desktop and laptop computers are not the only devices that can run apps. You can also download apps to mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. Here are some examples of mobile apps.
1. Gmail: You can use the Gmail app to view and send emails from your mobile device. It is available for Android and iOS devices.
2. Instagram: You can use Instagram to share photos of yourself, friends and family. It is available for Android and iOS.
3. Duolingo: This app can help you learn a new language through quizzes, games, and other activities. It is available for Android and iOS.
Installing new applications–
Every computer and mobile device already has applications like a web browser and media player installed. However, you can also purchase and install new applications to add more functionality.
Setting up a computer in just 9 steps
Setting up the computer:
Basic Computer Knowledge- So you have a new computer and you’re ready to set it up. This may seem like a daunting task, but it’s much easier than you might think! Most computers are set up the same way, no matter what brand of computer you have.
You are still setting up a new computer which is still in the box, you may have got the guide with details. You can set up a computer by following the step-by-step details of those instructions.
Setting up a laptop:
If you have a laptop, the setup is simple: just open it and press the power button. If the battery does not charge, you need to plug in the AC adapter. You can continue to use the laptop while charging.
If your laptop has some peripherals like external speakers, you can read the instructions below. Laptops and desktops generally use the same type of connection, so the same steps will still apply.
Setting up a desktop:
Step 1- Unpack the monitor and computer case out of the box. Remove any plastic wrap or protective tape. Place the monitor and computer case on the desk or workspace.
Be sure to keep your computer case well ventilated and well ventilated. This will help prevent the computer from overheating.
Step 2 – Find the monitor cable. There are many types of monitor cables, so get some help if needed. If you have trouble locating your monitor cable, check the instruction manual for your computer.
Step 3 – Connect one end of the cable on the back of the computer to the monitor port and the other end to the monitor. You need to tighten the screws on the monitor cable to secure it.
Most computer cables will only fit in a certain way. If the cable does not fit, do not force or you may damage the connector. Make sure the plug is aligned with the port, then connect it.
Step 4 – Unpack the keyboard and determine if it’s using a USB (rectangular) connector or a PS / 2 (round) connector. If it uses a USB connector, plug it into any USB port on the back of the computer. If using this PS / 2 connector, plug in the purple keyboard port on the back of the computer.
Step 5 – Unpack the mouse and determine if it uses a USB or PS / 2 connector. If it uses a USB connector, plug it into any USB port on the back of the computer. If it is using a PS / 2 connector, plug in the green mouse port on the back of the computer.
Note: If your keyboard has a USB port, you can connect your mouse to the keyboard instead of connecting directly to your computer.
Note: If you have a wireless mouse or keyboard, you may need to add a Bluetooth dongle (USB adapter) to your computer. However, most computers have built-in Bluetooth, so an adapter is not required.
Step 6 – If you have external speakers or headphones, you can connect them to your computer’s audio port (either in front of or behind the computer). Most computers have color-coded ports. Speakers or headphones are connected to the green port and microphones are connected to the pink port. The blue port is a line, which can be used with other types of devices.
Some speakers, headphones, and microphones have a USB connector instead of the usual audio plug. It can be connected to any USB port. In addition, most computers have speakers or a microphone on the monitor.
Step 7 – Find the two power supply cables that came with your computer. First, plug the power supply cable into the back of the computer and then into the surge protector. Then, connect the monitor to the surge protector using the other cable.
You can also use an uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which acts as an energy protector and provides temporary power in the event of a power outage.
Step 8 – Finally, add the surge protector to the outlet. You may also need to turn on the surge protector if there is a power switch.
If you do not have a surge protector, you can plug the computer directly into the wall. However, it is not recommended because electrical surges can harm your computer.
Step 9 – If you have a printer, scanner, webcam, or other peripherals, you can connect them right now. Most peripherals are plug-and-play, meaning that if they are plugged in, they will be recognized by your computer.
Other peripherals may be included in this software. Which you must install before you can start using them. Use the instructions included with the device to install it if necessary.
That’s it – you’ve finished setting up your computer, so it’s time to start using it! We will talk more about how to use your computer in the next several lessons.
Basic Computer General Knowledge Questions and Answers
So I hope you can answer the questions “What is a computer” and “Basic Computer Knowledge” and “10 Steps To Set Up Your Computer”. If you like the post, don’t forget to share it on social media.